Dr (Pundit) Roshan Singh DEha/DEmp
Hinduism is a way of human life, a path of eternal spiritual discipline, the Sanatan dharma. Recognizing the needs of human beings during their lifetimes, the ancient sages have put forward a fourfold ideal to be striven for by every member of the society. This is called the purusharthas or the ends to be achieved in life. They are dharma, artha, kama and moksha i.e. duty or righteousness, wealth, bodily desires and liberation from transmigratory existence respectively. Unless some higher norms and standards are prescribed there cannot be any fairness in playing the game of life to achieve these ends and as a consequence jungle law only will prevail. It is these rules or norms that go by the omnibus term “dharma” for which there is no English equivalent. For our purposes we will interpret this term as duty or responsibility or obligation. Thus dharma is made applicable to each member of the society according to the varna to which he belongs and according to his stage in life.
Hinduism believes that a human being gets purified and refined by undertaking certain rites or rituals referred to as samskaras which are generally taken as sixteen in number (sodasa-sasamskaras). The Hindu scriptures do not consider birth as the starting point of life. It goes farther back since the incident of birth is primarily conditioned by heredity and parentage. Keeping this in mind, the samskaras for a person start from the time of his conception (Garbhadhana) and end with cremation rites (antyeshthi).
The antyeshthi stands for all the post-death ceremonies performed by the son of the deceased for his future welfare and to be freed from the debt or obligation he owes to his parents. These post-death rituals do not come to an end with the conclusion of the prescribed number of days of the mourning period immediately following the death but extends throughout the lifetime of the surviving son, though on a smaller scale.
Apart from the ceremonies to be performed every month following the death culminating in the first anniversary of the death, Hindu Dharma prescribes that the forefathers should be worshipped thereafter also. When they leave this world it becomes the Vedic duty of their descendants (sons) to worship their departed souls on a daily basis apart from the specific days like New Moon day (amavasya), Eclipse Days (grihan), Parva Kala (Uttarayana, Dakshinayana), Pushkara Days, on the specific day (thithi) of their death, on visiting any Theertha Kshetras etc.
Among these rites the important ones to be undertaken by the son in honor of his deceased parents and forefathers are Tarpan on every newmoon day (Amavasya), Shraaddh on each anniversary of the deceased and most importantly the rites to be performed during the Pitrupaksh.
RUNA TRAYA: CONCEPT OF THREE DEBTS
A discerning person will naturally seek an answer to the question why at all these rituals are required to be performed. Hinduism answers this query when it says that every person who is born is under five runas or debts to his manes and others from whom he derives benefit as a member of the society. They are called pancha maha runas (five great debts) to clear which he has to undertake pancha maha yajnas (five great sacrifices). They are 1. deva yajna (sacrifice to the gods), 2. pitru yajna (sacrifice to the manes or forefathers), 3. rishi yajna or brahma yajna (sacrifice to the sages learned in the Vedas), 4. nriyajna (feeding the visiting hungry human beings) and 5. bhuta yajna (feeding the animals). There were no schemes of loan waiver or writing off of the debt in those days.
It was considered that by performing these sacrifices daily, the householder is actually repaying the debts to the divine beings and the society from whom he has received help and sustenance. They also help him in offsetting the sins he might be committing knowingly or unknowingly during his daily life.
Among these the first three types of debts viz.1. debt to the gods (deva runa), 2. debt to the forefathers (pitru runa) and 3. debt to the sages (rishi runa) are given priority which is called runa traya. The idea of three debts under which every human being is born has been found in the Rig Veda (8.32.16; 6.61.1), Taitriya Samhita (126.96.36.199) and the Satapatha Brahmana (188.8.131.52). The first type of debt is repaid by the performance of yajnas or Vedic sacrifices to the gods; the second by marrying according to dharma, begetting successors and doing shraaddhas to the deceased ancestors and the third by study of the Vedas. We are concerned in this essay with the rituals relating to the deceased forefathers for clearing pitru runa.
The Sanskrit word ‘pitr’ becomes ‘pita’ in the singular and ‘pitarah’ in the plural; the former means ‘father’, the latter is used in several senses like forefathers or ancestors occupying their own world called Pitruloka. The most common meaning as used in Shraaddhas is three generations of ancestor’s viz. father, grandfather and great-grandfather.
In Hinduism, the pitrus (forefathers or manes) are always respected. Normally, once a year at least, the descendents are expected to pay homage to them through religious rites known as ‘Shraaddh’. It is believed that even as the descendents are eager to appease their forefathers, the pitrus too are eager to receive such appeasement. The Markandeya Purana describes such instances of eagerness on the part of the pitrus to get good food (in the Shraaddhas), to receive oblations of water during Tarpans and to get a Shraaddha performed at holy places like Gaya. For these acts of offering them food etc. they, in turn, bless their descendents and are pleased if they become Vedic scholars and devotees of Vishnu. It is believed that during the performance of shraaddhas these pitrus accept the offerings by assuming the form of birds or by entering into the invitee brahmanas through their subtle bodies.
In this context the following verse from the Bhagavad Gita where Arjuna laments about the ancestors losing their status on account of their being deprived of offerings to them is relevant.
सङ्करो नरकायैव कुलघ्नानां कुलस्य च ।
पतन्ति पितरो ह्येषां लुप्तपिण्डोदकक्रियाः ॥ ४१ ॥
kula-ghnānāṁ kulasya ca
patanti pitaro hy eṣāṁ
saṅkaraḥ — such unwanted children; narakāya — make for hellish life; eva — certainly; kula–ghnānām — for those who are killers of the family; kulasya — for the family; ca — also; patanti — fall down; pitaraḥ — forefathers; hi — certainly; eṣām — of them; lupta — stopped; piṇḍa — of offerings of food; udaka — and water; kriyāḥ — performances.
An increase of unwanted population certainly causes hellish life both for the family and for those who destroy the family tradition. The ancestors of such corrupt families fall down, because the performances for offering them food and water are entirely stopped.
According to the rules and regulations of fruitive activities, there is a need to offer periodical food and water to the forefathers of the family. This offering is performed by worship of Viṣṇu, because eating the remnants of food offered to Viṣṇu can deliver one from all kinds of sinful reactions. Sometimes the forefathers may be suffering from various types of sinful reactions, and sometimes some of them cannot even acquire a gross material body and are forced to remain in subtle bodies as ghosts. Thus, when remnants of prasādam food are offered to forefathers by descendants, the forefathers are released from ghostly or other kinds of miserable life. Such help rendered to forefathers is a family tradition, and those who are not in devotional life are required to perform such rituals. One who is engaged in the devotional life is not required to perform such actions. Simply by performing devotional service, one can deliver hundreds and thousands of forefathers from all kinds of misery. It is stated in the Bhagavatam (11.5.41).
We find from the Upanishads and the Bhagavad Gita that the ancient Hindus believed in two paths by which the soul of a departed person could go either to the Brahma loka or to the Chandra loka. The former is called Devayana and the latter is known as pitruyana. The Rig Veda (10.14.2 and 7) mentions the pitruloka as a place where one’s departed ancestors live. The Brihadaranyaka Upanishad (6.2.16) considers Pitruloka as a station on the path of Pitruyana (the path of manes).
The word ‘tarpana’ means satiating or satisfying. It implies the rites relating to satisfying the departed souls particularly one’s forefathers. It consists of standing in water after bathing in a river or tank and offering water thrice taking it in the joined palms of hand, with appropriate mantras to all beings of creation from Brahma down to the blade of grass. Manusmriti (2.176) says that Tarpan to devas, pitrus and rishis is a compulsory part of the daily routine of every brahmacharin. The water may be mixed with gingelly seeds (til). To this is also added milk, flowers, barley or wheat seeds. Tarpana is said to satiate the gods, manes and sages to whom it is offered. In our situation we conduct tarpan at our homes if it is not possible to have it done at a river.
Hinduism considers death as a transition from one life to another. It believes that the disembodied soul badly needs help and succor from its descendents, not only during the period following the death of the physical body but also during its journey to the other worlds. It is here that come the role of the various rites performed immediately after death and also other rites that are repeated every month for a year or even every year thereafter. These rites generally go by the name ‘shraaddh’; the literature on the subject of shraaddh is enormous.
The word ‘shraaddh’ is generally taken to mean after-death rites and subsequent ceremonies. ‘Shraaddh’ is performed by a competent descendent of the deceased ancestors with shraddha or faith. It is done for the benefit of three generations of ancestors viz. father, grandfather and great-grandfather. It has to be performed at the appropriate time (afternoon or aparahna) and place (preferably holy places like Gaya, Prabhasa, Prayag, Varanasi, Ujjain, Kurukhetra, Badrinath etc.) as determined by the sastras and family traditions. It may be accomplished by giving either cooked food or uncooked articles of food or gold or money to worthy brahmanas. Generally for the majority of the people pinda daana – offering cooked rice-balls to the pitrus is very important in this ritual. The entire ritual is then dedicated to Lord Narayana with a prayer for forgiveness for the faults that might have unknowingly crept in. Those that live abroad can perform the pooja at their homes.
The original concept of performing the ritual of Shrāddha was conceived by Sage Atri, the son of Lord Brahma. Sage Atri narrated the ritual of Shrāddha, as laid down by Lord Brahma to Nimi, one of His descendants. This established ritual has continued till today. Manu was the first one to perform the ritual of Shrāddha. Hence he is called the deity of Shrāddha.
According to Ramayan when Lord Rama, Goddess Sita and Lakshmana were staying in the forest, Bharat met and appraised them about the death of their father. After hearing this sad news Lord Ram performed the ritual of Shrāddh for his deceased father.
Pindapradaana or simply pinda daana occupies an important place in the post-death ceremonies. Pindas are rice-balls prepared by mixing cooked rice with til seeds. Three such balls are made which are kept on the ground on a banana leaf or a dried leaf covered with darbha or kusha grass and til and offered to the three generations of pitrus (who are believed to accept them by assuming the form of birds (crows) or animals such as cows or through water in the flowing rivers like Ganga or sacred tanks and lakes like Pushkar or brahmakund at Kurukshetra or brahmakapal at Badrinath or a river close to your home.) In a much more elaborate pooja that can be conducted by your Pujye Punditji 16 pinda is offered with the accompaniment of sacred mantras.
The most important aspect of the pooja and offerings should be ones faith (shraddha) and devotion (bhakti) as that will please Lord Vishnu greatly. Do bear in mind that we do not pray to the dead but pray to Lord Vishnu to appease the souls of the departed.
Your ever well wisher
Dr (Pundit) Roshan Singh